Effect of Nd:YAG and 980nm Diode laser irradiation as a hypersensitivity treatment on shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets to enamel

Submitted: 12 November 2023
Accepted: 6 December 2023
Published: 21 December 2023
Abstract Views: 1267
PDF: 1
Publisher's note
All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article or claim that may be made by its manufacturer is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.


Lasers are one of the tooth hypersensitivity treatments. This study aimed to determine the effect of irradiation of Nd:YAG 1064nm and 980nm Diode lasers, used for hypersensitivity treatment, on the shear bond strength (SBS) of metal orthodontic brackets to enamel. Ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) was used to simulate sensitivity in 70 extracted human premolars. The teeth were radiated with 1w Nd:YAG, 1.5w Nd:YAG, 1w Diode, or 1.5w Diode. All samples were incubated at 37° for 24 hours, after bonding the metal brackets. SBS values and adhesive remnant index (ARI) for each tooth was recorded. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Kruskal-Wallis test were used to compare the mean SBS and the distribution of ARI scores between the study groups, respectively. The SBS mean from the highest to the lowest were in 1w Diode (25.71Mpa), 1w Nd:YAG (24.66Mpa), 1.5w Diode (23.08Mpa), control (21.68Mpa) and 1.5w Nd:YAG (21.53Mpa) groups. No statistically significant difference existed between different groups, in terms of SBS (p=0.211) and ARI distribution (p=0.066). The application of Nd:YAG and 980nm Diode lasers to treat tooth hypersensitivity did not change the SBS of metal orthodontic brackets to the enamel and thus, are harmless to use for orthodontic patients.



PlumX Metrics


Download data is not yet available.


West NX. Dentine hypersensitivity: preventive and therapeutic approaches to treatment. Periodontology 2000 2008;48:31-41. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-0757.2008.00262.x
Favaro Zeola L, Soares PV, Cunha-Cruz J. Prevalence of dentin hypersensitivity: Systematic review and meta-analysis. J Dentistry 2019;81:1-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2018.12.015
Hypersensitivity C. Consensus-based recommendations for the diagnosis and management of dentin hypersensitivity. J Can Dental Assoc 2003;69:221-6.
Addy M. Etiology and clinical implications of dentine hypersensitivity. Dental Clin North Am 1990;34:503-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0011-8532(22)01131-4
Trushkowsky RD, Oquendo A. Treatment of dentin hypersensitivity. Dent Clin North Am 2011;55:599-608. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2011.02.013
Porto IC, Andrade AK, Montes MA. Diagnosis and treatment of dentinal hypersensitivity. J Oral Sci 2009;51:323-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2334/josnusd.51.323
Perdigao J, Geraldeli S, Hodges JS. Total-etch versus self-etch adhesive: effect on postoperative sensitivity. J Am Dental Assoc 2003;134:1621-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14219/jada.archive.2003.0109
Brännström M. Etiology of dentin hypersensitivity. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society [Suomen Hammaslaakariseuran Toimituksia] 1992;88:7-13.
Pashley DH. Smear layer: overview of structure and function. Proceedings of the Finnish Dental Society [Suomen Hammaslaakariseuran Toimituksia] 1992;88:215-24.
Brännström M. The Hydrodynamics Of The Dentine; Its Possible Relationship To Dentinal-Pain. 1972.
Vano M, Derchi G, Barone A, et al. Reducing dentine hypersensitivity with nano-hydroxyapatite toothpaste: a double-blind randomized controlled trial. Clin Oral Invest 2018;22:313-20. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-017-2113-3
GojkovVukelic M, Hadzic S, Zukanovic A, et al. Application of Diode Laser in the Treatment of Dentine Hypersensitivity. Medical Arch 2016;70:466. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5455/medarh.2016.70.466-469
Shiau HJ. Dentin hypersensitivity. J Evidence Based Dental Pract 2012;12:220-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S1532-3382(12)70043-X
Bamise CT, Esan TA. Mechanisms and treatment approaches of dentine hypersensitivity: a literature review. Oral Health Prev Dent 2011;9:353-67.
Clark D, Levin L. Non-surgical management of tooth hypersensitivity. Int Dent J 2016;66:249-56. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/idj.12247
Petersson LG. The role of fluoride in the preventive management of dentin hypersensitivity and root caries. Clin Oral Investig 2013;17:63-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-012-0916-9
Arnold W, Prange M, Naumova E. Effectiveness of various toothpastes on dentine tubule occlusion. J Dent 2015;43:440-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2015.01.014
Petrou I, Heu R, Stranick M, et al. A breakthrough therapy for dentin hypersensitivity: how dental products containing 8% arginine and calcium carbonate work to deliver effective relief of sensitive teeth. J Clin Dent 2009;20:23.
Yang Z-y, Wang F, Lu K, et al. Arginine-containing desensitizing toothpaste for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity: a meta-analysis. Clin Cosmetic Investig Dent 2016;8:1. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2147/CCIDE.S95660
Kathariya R. Dental hypersensitivity: A common cold in dentistry. J Dental Res Rev 2016;3:49. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/2348-2915.184217
Kimura Y, Wilder‐Smith P, Yonaga K, Matsumoto K. Treatment of dentine hypersensitivity by lasers: a review. J Clinical Periodontol 2000;27:715-21. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1034/j.1600-051x.2000.027010715.x
Machado AC, Viana ÍEL, Farias-Neto AM, et al. Is photobiomodulation (PBM) effective for the treatment of dentin hypersensitivity? A systematic review. Lasers Med Sci 2018;33:745-53. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-017-2403-7
Orchardson R, Peacock JM, John Whitters C. Effect of pulsed Nd: YAG laser radiation on action potential conduction in isolated mammalian spinal nerves. Lasers Surg Med 1997;21:142-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)1096-9101(1997)21:2<142::AID-LSM5>3.0.CO;2-Q
Bellal S, Feghali RE, Mehta A, et al Efficacy of near infrared dental lasers on dentinal hypersensitivity: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials. Lasers Med Sci 2022;37:733-44. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-021-03391-1
Xiao S, Liang K, Liu H, et al. Effect of Water-Cooled Nd:YAG Laser on Dentinal Tubule Occlusion In Vitro. Photomed Laser Surg 2017;35:98-104. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2016.4169
Viapiana R, Sousa-Neto MD, Souza-Gabriel AE, et al. Microhardness of radicular dentin treated with 980-nm diode laser and different irrigant solutions. Photomed Laser Surg 2012;30:102-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2011.3109
Farmakis E-TR, Beer F, Kozyrakis K, et al. The influence of different power settings of Nd: YAG laser irradiation, bioglass and combination to the occlusion of dentinal tubules. Photomed Laser Surg 2013;31:54-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2012.3333
Rizzante FA, Maenosono RM, Duarte MA, et al. In Vitro evaluation of dentin hydraulic conductance after 980 nm diode laser irradiation. J Periodontol 2016;87:320-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1902/jop.2015.150444
Umana M, Heysselaer D, Tielemans M, et al. Dentinal tubules sealing by means of diode lasers (810 and 980 nm): a preliminary in vitro study. Photomed Laser Surg 2013;31:307-14. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2012.3443
Kiomarsi N, Salim S, Sarraf P, et al. Evaluation of the Diode laser (810nm,980nm) on dentin tubule diameter following internal bleaching. J Clin Exp Dent 2016;8:e241-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4317/jced.52666
Anić I, Šegović S, Katanec D, et al. Scanning electron microscopic study of dentin lased with argon, CO2, and Nd: YAG laser. J Endodontics 1998;24:77-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0099-2399(98)80081-2
Parker S. Verifiable CPD paper: laser-tissue interaction. Br Dental J 2007;202:73-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1038/bdj.2007.24
Brugnera Jr A, Zanin F, Barbin EL, et al. Effects of Er: YAG and Nd: YAG laser irradiation on radicular dentine permeability using different irrigating solutions. Lasers Surg Med 2003;33:256-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1002/lsm.10214
Santos C, Sousa-Neto MD, Alfredo E, et al. Morphologic evaluation of the radicular dentine irradiated with Nd: YAG laser under different parameters and angles of incidence. Photomed Laser Surg 2005;23:590-5. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2005.23.590
Marshall Jr GW, Marshall SJ, Kinney JH, Balooch M. The dentin substrate: structure and properties related to bonding. J Dent 1997;25:441-58. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0300-5712(96)00065-6
Franke M, Taylor AW, Lago A, Fredel MC. Influence of Nd: YAG laser irradiation on an adhesive restorative procedure. Operative Dentistry 2006;31:604-9. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/05-110
Moritz A, Schoop U, Goharkhay K, et al. Primarily Research: procedures for enamel and dentin conditioning: a comparison of conventional and innovative methods. J Esthetic Restor Dent 1998;10:84-93. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1708-8240.1998.tb00342.x
Bakhadher W, Halawany H, Talic N, et al. Factors Affecting the Shear Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets – a Review of In Vitro Studies. Acta Medica 2015;58:43-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.14712/18059694.2015.92
Baumgartner S, Koletsi D, Verna C, Eliades T. The Effect of Enamel Sandblasting on Enhancing Bond Strength of Orthodontic Brackets: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. J Adhes Dent 2017;19:463-73.
Belal MH, Yassin A. A comparative evaluation of CO2 and erbium-doped yttrium aluminium garnet laser therapy in the management of dentin hypersensitivity and assessment of mineral content. J Periodontal Implant Sci 2014;44:227-34. DOI: https://doi.org/10.5051/jpis.2014.44.5.227
Al-Saud LM, Al-Nahedh HN. Occluding effect of Nd:YAG laser and different dentin desensitizing agents on human dentinal tubules in vitro: a scanning electron microscopy investigation. Oper Dent 2012;37:340-55. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/10-188-L
Artun J, Bergland S. Clinical trials with crystal growth conditioning as an alternative to acid-etch enamel pretreatment. Am J Orthodont 1984;85:333-40. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/0002-9416(84)90190-8
Coluzzi DJ, Convissar RA. Lasers in clinical dentistry. Dental Clin 2004;48:xi-xii. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cden.2004.06.003
Marto CM, Baptista Paula A, Nunes T, et al. Evaluation of the efficacy of dentin hypersensitivity treatments—a systematic review and follow‐up analysis. J Oral Rehabil 2019;46:952-90. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/joor.12842
Schaller HG, Weihing T, Strub J. Permeability of dentine after Nd: YAG laser treatment: an in vitro study. J Oral Rehabil 1997;24:274-81. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2842.1997.d01-290.x
Ariyaratnam M, Wilson M, Blinkhorn A. An analysis of surface roughness, surface morphology and composite/dentin bond strength of human dentin following the application of the Nd: YAG laser. Dental Materials 1999;15:223-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0109-5641(99)00035-4
Kobayashi CA, Fujishima A, Miyazaki T, et al. Effect of Nd: YAG Laser Irradiation on Shear Bond Strength of Glass-Ionomer Luting Cement to Dentin Surface. Int J Prosthodont 2003;16.
Rolla JN, Mota EG, Oshima HM, et al. Nd:YAG laser influence on microtensile bond strength of different adhesive systems for human dentin. Photomed Laser Surg 2006;24:730-4. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2006.24.730
Yazıcı E, Gurgan S, Gutknecht N, Imazato S. Effects of erbium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet and neodymium:yttrium–aluminum–garnet laser hypersensitivity treatment parameters on the bond strength of self-etch adhesives. Lasers Med Sci 2010;25:511-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10103-009-0682-3
Tulga A, Saraç D. Effects of Dentin Surface Treatments on Hypersensitivity to Bond Strength of Restorations: An In Vitro Study. Internat J Periodont Restorative Dent 2015;35:e66-74. DOI: https://doi.org/10.11607/prd.2194
Sellan PLB, Zanatta RF, Torres CRG, et al. Effects of calcium-phosphate, laser and adhesive on dentin permeability and bond strength. Heliyon 2020;6:e03925. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e03925
Landmayer K, da Silva JCV, Anhesini BH, et al. Effect of Nd:YAG laser irradiation, used as a desensitizing strategy, on bond strength to simulated hypersensitive dentin. Clin Oral Investig 2022;26:4109-16. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/s00784-022-04380-6
Akca T, Yazici AR, Celik C, et al. The effect of desensitizing treatments on the bond strength of resin composite to dentin mediated by a self-etching primer. Operative Dentistry 2007;32:451-6. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/06-130
Can-Karabulut DC. Influence of a dentin desensitizer and a red-wavelength diode laser application on bond strength of composite to dentin in vitro. Photomed Laser Surg 2010;28:S19-24. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1089/pho.2009.2595
Akarsu S, Karademir SA, Ertas E, Atasoy S. The effect of diode laser application on restoration of non carious cervical lesion: Clinical follow up. Niger J Clin Pract 2020;23:165-71. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/njcp.njcp_399_19
Aranha AC, Siqueira Junior Ade S, Cavalcante LM, et al. Microtensile bond strengths of composite to dentin treated with desensitizer products. J Adhes Dent 2006;8:85-90.
Lin PY, Cheng YW, Chu CY, et al. In-office treatment for dentin hypersensitivity: a systematic review and network meta-analysis. J Clin Periodontol 2013;40:53-64. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1111/jcpe.12011
Khoroushi M, Ghazalgoo A. Effect of desensitizer application on shear bond strength of composite resin to bleached enamel. Indian J Dental Res 2013;24:87-92. DOI: https://doi.org/10.4103/0970-9290.114961
Adebayo OA, Burrow MF, Tyas MJ. Effects of conditioners on microshear bond strength to enamel after carbamide peroxide bleaching and/or casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACP) treatment. J Dent 2007;35:862-70. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2007.08.007
Shadman N, Ebrahimi SF, Shoul MA, Sattari H. In vitro evaluation of casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate effect on the shear bond strength of dental adhesives to enamel. Dental Res J 2015;12:167.
Ladhe KA, Sastri MR, Madaan JB, Vakil KK. Effect of remineralizing agents on bond strength of orthodontic brackets: an in vitro study. Progress Orthodontics 2014;15:28. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1186/s40510-014-0028-y
Malkoc S, Demir A, Sengun A, Ozer F. The effect on shear bond strength of different antimicrobial agents after acid etching. Eur J Orthodont 2005;27:484-8. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji032
Metz MJ, Cochran MA, Matis BA, et al. Clinical evaluation of 15% carbamide peroxide on the surface microhardness and shear bond strength of human enamel. Operative Dentistry 2007;32:427-36. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/06-142
Türkkahraman H, Adanir N. Effects of potassium nitrate and oxalate desensitizer agents on shear bond strengths of orthodontic brackets. Angle Orthodontist 2007;77:1096-100. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2319/101906-431.1
Pashley E, Tao L, Pashley DH. Effects of oxalate on dentin bonding. Am J Dent 1993;6:116-8.
Tay F, Pashley DH, Mak Y, Carvalho R, Lai S, Suh B. Integrating oxalate desensitizers with total-etch two-step adhesive. J Dental Res 2003;82:703-7. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1177/154405910308200909
Huh JB, Kim JH, Chung MK, et al. The effect of several dentin desensitizers on shear bond strength of adhesive resin luting cement using self-etching primer. J Dent 2008;36:1025-32. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2008.08.012
Arisu HD, Dalkihç E, Üçtaşli MB. Effect of desensitizing agents on the microtensile bond strength of a two-step self-etch adhesive to dentin. Oper Dent 2011;36:153-61. DOI: https://doi.org/10.2341/09-381-L
Zachrisson YØ, Zachrisson BU, Büyükyilmaz T. Surface preparation for orthodontic bonding to porcelain. Am J Orthodont Dentofac Orthoped 1996;109:420-30. DOI: https://doi.org/10.1016/S0889-5406(96)70124-5

How to Cite

Karimi, M., Sarmadi, S., Chiniforush, N., & Behforouz , A. (2023). Effect of Nd:YAG and 980nm Diode laser irradiation as a hypersensitivity treatment on shear bond strength of metal orthodontic brackets to enamel. Laser Therapy, 30(2). https://doi.org/10.4081/ltj.2023.371